The power system enterprises in general and PJSC "Centrenergo" TPPs in particular which transform the coal into pure energy and owing to the process specificity have a negative impact to the environment and considered as main sources of environmental pollution. Among all kinds of their harmful impact to the environment the most serious and hazardous is an impact to the atmospheric air caused by greenhouse gas with flue gases emissions from the boilers, mainly carbon dioxide and polluting substances (sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ashes, etc.). In 2019 the total amount of pollutant ambient emissions from PJSC "Centrenergo" TPPs exceeded 191,1 thousand tons, including above:
• 132,38 thousand tons of sulfur dioxides;
• 40,44 thousand tons of suspended matters;
• 16,87 thousand tons of nitrogen oxides.
The greenhouse gas emissions made almost 9,63 million tons.
In addition the electricity production on TPP is accompanied by formation of waste products such as ashes and slags which accumulation on PJSC "Centrenergo" TPPs exceeded 86,2 million tons as on 01.01.2020 with annual output up to 1,037 million tons and resulted in alienation of above 700 hectares of land for their storage as the recycling volume of these waste products does not exceed 0,9 %.
The operation of thermal power facilities is also related with use of significant water resources which major part is used without deterioration of their quality parameters by direct-flow TPP, namely in what concerns our Company - by Trypilska TPP, for cooling of the turbines condensers and then it is returned to superficial water bodies. In 2019 the Company's thermal power plants used 595,9 million m3 of water, including superficial water - 594,7 million m3, including for cooling of the condensers - 402,8 million m3. Thus the volume of the returned water for circulation as normative clean recycled water made 556,3 million m3.
The considerable harmful environmental impact levels of PJSC "Centrenergo" TPPs together with active development of the environmental legislation aimed at harmonization with the European legislation, accession of Ukraine to the different international treaties and to the Agreement about foundation of the Energy Community, high level of technologies and equipment developed on the basis of the best foreign practices, result in dynamic expansion and increase of requirements to the environment pollutants.
Therefore the environment protection issues for thermal power enterprises in general and for PJSC "Centrenergo" in particular gain the special importance and require an active search of ways for possible minimization of negative impact on the environment.
In spite of difficult financial and economic conditions at the Company's TPPs, the reconstruction and modernization of the installed equipment is in process aiming at increase of production efficiency and thus mitigation of man-made impact on the environment and climate change, the progressive updating of the out-of-date ash treatment equipment is provided, the works are started on implementation of modern flue gas treatment systems for their clearing from ashes, sulfur and nitrogen compounds with achievement of their concentration (mg/nm3) in flue gases in compliance with the European level. Thus in 2005 the pilot project on reconstruction of the main equipment was implemented on the coal-fired power unit at Zmiivska TPP of PJSC "Centrenergo". The installation within the framework of the project of the modern electric precipitator made by German company "Rothemuhle" significantly reduced the level of the power plant harmful impact on the environment.
In 2006 with support of the State Fund of Environment Protection at the power unit №1 (line А) of Trypilska TPP they replaced the electric precipitator with modern one made by Zaporozhye experimental mechanical plant which provided the ash collection efficiency improvement from 95,53 % up to 99,3 % and contributed to the improvement of ecological situation around Kyiv in TPP impact area.
With purpose of environmental pollution levels reduction and natural resources consumption decrease the thermal power plants are subject to reconstruction of the cleaning facilities, reconstruction and raising of the existing ash disposal area dams, equipping of the water consuming systems with water metering devices, etc.
The plans are under development which provide for further reconstruction and modernization of the existing TPPs main equipment, renovation and extension of the installed gas treatment equipment, implementation of the design solutions on separate extraction of slags and ashes, introduction of the dry ash extraction during reconstruction of the electric precipitators, etc., aim at general mitigation of the environmental load and dynamic approximation of the thermal power facilities to the European standards of operation.
Today PJSC "Centrenergo" experts adopt the practices of the European power engineering companies, put their best efforts in implementation of the modern gas treatment technologies while reconstructing TPP power units, constructing environmental protection facilities and taking decisions about further strategic development of the generating capacities which paramount importance is improvement of the environmental situation in Ukraine.